Monotheism is the belief in one all-powerful, all-encompassing God. Many modern religions practice it, however, polytheism is a more ancient tradition. The first monotheistic state was under Pharaoh Akhenaten, who instituted the worship of Aten. Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) was a Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years. His revolution was reversed soon after his death, with the traditional cults reinstated and the new temples dismantled.
Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes instituted under Akhenaten. The Aten, first appears in the Story of Sinuhe. Sinuhe's name means “Son of the Sycamore” an important link in understanding the story. The sycamore is an ancient Egyptian Tree of Life, associated with Hathor, the Goddess of fertility and rebirth.
Most monotheistic religions include the concept of a redeemer, the Horus/Christ, who has come to conquer. Like Chiron, the messiah, and the resurrection. The Sun God, Baal and Sun card of the Tarot, shows the Christ child the Second Coming on a white horse, following The Star.
The idea of Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became Judaism has been considered by many scholars. One of the first to mention this was Sigmund Freud, in his book Moses and Monotheism, Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death. Freud explains that years after the murder of Moses, the rebels regretted their action thus forming the concept of the Messiah as a hope for the return of Moses as the Saviour of the Israelites. Freud said that the guilt from the murder of Moses is inherited through the generations; this guilt then drives the Jews to religion to make them feel better.