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2004-1595 BC, The Old Babylonian Period was disintegrating. What had been a powerful empire in the Middle East, had fallen into the hands of the Sea Peoples invading from the islands of the north.

In 1792-1750 BC, Hammurabi comes to power in Babylon and establishes a vast kingdom in the region. In just a few years, Hammurabi had succeeded in uniting all of Babylonia under his rule. Hammurabi's dynasty is the First Dynasty of Babylon, which lasted for about 200 years until 1595 BC. The conventional middle chronology fixes the sack of Babylon at 1595 BC.

Nineveh, a major city of Babylonia, was devoted to the Ishtar of Nineveh. Some scholars believe that the garden which Sennacherib built next to his Royal Palace at Nineveh, with its associated irrigation works, had been the original Hanging Gardens of Babylon.